The NIH Public Access Policy implements Division G, Title II, Section 218 of PL 110-161 (Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008).
The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall require that all investigators funded by the NIH submit or have submitted for them to the National Library of Medicine’s PubMed Central an electronic version of their final, peer-reviewed manuscripts upon acceptance for publication, to be made publicly available no later than 12 months after the official date of publication: Provided, That the NIH shall implement the public access policy in a manner consistent with copyright law.
The complete policy can be found at: http://publicaccess.nih.gov/policy.htm
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has announced that effective spring 2013, researchers not in compliance with the NIH Public Access Policy regarding the deposition of publications resulting from NIH funding into PubMed Central will not receive the next installment of their funding. NIH intends to hold processing of non-competing continuation awards until recipients have demonstrated compliance and all eligible papers have been received.
For additional information, see notice NOT-OD-12-160, Upcoming Changes to Public Access Policy Reporting Requirements.